Saturday, May 23, 2020

Database Management System - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 25 Words: 7583 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? STRATEGY ANALYSIS DESCRIPTION OF CURRENT BUSINESS ACTIVITIES INTRODUCTION DMC is a Dedicated cars company that is specialized in Car sales business, and it was established Four years ago in 7th May 2005, and its main name stands for Dedicated Motor Cars and its main division is in Tripoli Libya, it is a company with many high workers and skilled employees working on it as they are sharing the same ambition, and always aiming for the best in their business, in both to improve their employees skills and also to provide the best services to their dear customer.. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Database Management System" essay for you Create order DMC is really working hard to achieve a new improvement in their business every year, also to get the most popular and successful cars to get them, and for the best prices to its customers, as they are also filling their case show with a good collection in each month. As for this month they got a very promising collection of new cars that just released this year, and old ones but got well comments from millions of people who tried them, this collection will be for this year as in this time its the companys season time for the business. Current System The current system of my company is going like this, each day we are improving, and as I can see now we are well known as 1 of the top 20 Private companies in Libya, and we are also known in the other continents as well. We are also not restrict with only 1 nationality as we are offering jobs, because our company contains employees from different nationality as we have some of them in the main division and some other are in our different offices around the globe. DMC has a good budget as overall, and it is improving, also the customers are so pleased with our services in general, and our economical prices. That includes that we are always taking care of our employees in terms of payment and to keep them improving by sending them to take courses in different kind of fields. Although we are doing a pretty good job in this business field and improving by a good rate percentage every year, but we are really facing some of the major problems in our business, the main problem is that we are facing a new changes and new challenges in our business, also we have other competitors companies in the countries we are doing this business and selling our cars and making our different services. Problem Background Effects of it So our main problem actually includes semi problems that we should take care of them so we can solve the main problem, which is we really need to move on with our services with the technology we are facing these days in doing those kind of business to make it better, faster, and easier. And 1st of all is our own system in the company, because it is still not well organized as an strong infrastructure and we also need a well studied design model for this infrastructure for our company. Thats where I planned to made a Special database system to our company, which will be including our employees, our daily customers for each season, and our sales of cars on this season on as well covered by the invoice section of the company, and some specific information about our shipment idea and its fee and coverage services. The good thing is that with this new system we will be able to make a clear and direct relational between all the sections mentioned above and make a really strong infrastructure for the company plus to be able to store information and data more sufficiently. In this segment I would like to give you an idea about the goals and aims that we are aiming to achieve and they are: 1- Improve the business even much further, to reach a new level of development. 2- Reduce the paper work as we had a lost of some data from time to time. 3- To always keep up with the other contenders companies so we wont lose our customers. 4- Secure our data in a sufficient way. 5- Provide a system where it is easy to get data for any of our customers. 6- Improvement of production to satisfy the customers needs. 7- Easy access to database and information used by employees. 8- Remove barriers to widen its production by improving sales procedure and reducing costs. Hardware and Software Necessity These are all the hardware requirements needed Minimum Requirements Processor 2 Gigahertz (GHz) Pentium IV-Intel processor or Higher. Memory 512 MB of RAM or Higher. Hard Disk 900 MB of available space required on the system drive, 4 gigabytes (GB) of available space capacity on the installation drive. Drive DVD-ROM or CD-ROM drive and Floppy drive Display Super VGA (1024 x 768) or higher resolution. These are all the software requirements needed Minimum Requirements Operating Systems Windows XP Service Pack Final, Windows Vista, or Windows 7 any edition with MS-Office. H I S T O R Y DMC Companys history is not that much as the company only established two years ago, but in those two years we can say that the company earned its name and make various successful that led it to earn a respectful history archive in the day it starts doing business till our day now. Specification for New System The main purpose from making this new application in my company is 1st to achieve the objectives that DMC is aiming to achieve, 2nd to make the business much easier for the customer and the employee as each of them will have the advantage of these kind of applications in our business. Also the cars sales section (which is the Cars Details) will be much more attractive this way, and as it shows all the possible information that needed at the same time. That goes for the employee and customers tables as well; they are helping the company over all by making it progressing even much faster and also to reduce the paper work. About Us table shows the company in a really short cut way, and its true words shows on this section, also for the producer of this application to have his word on that section. Also the shipment tables is an important section and it is one of the reasons to determine whether a certain car sales company is really know about its business and can keep up, or sadly but have no idea about this field of business as it helps a lot in showing exactly the steps taking to ship your car and to not need to discuss any of the employee about it because it is very clear. On the other hand, last one but not last, is Plate Info table, which holds all the plate number for the cars that have been purchased from our company, and also saving the numbers from the other cars for the customers that are ding services for their own car. BUISNESS ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS DESCRIPTION OF OPERATIONS Assign an Employee to handle a certain invoice. Check the Country of the Customer to make the delivery shipment service for his/her order. Adding an Employee to the company. Assign a Unique ID to a Customer. Adding a new Car to the showcase. Operation Name: Assign an Employee to handle a certain invoice. Description: This operation handles the fact that when we are having a new invoice table, we hand it over to a certain employee, and a (certain) employee means that he/she is not busy with another invoice or another operation in the moment. Input: The assigned Employee must appear his/her unique ID number, along with his name, and should be clear to read. Output: The Employee will be responsible for that invoice, and handle its full data. ============================ Operation Name: Check the Country of the Customer to make a delivery shipment service for his/her order. Description: This operation handles the action when the Customer wants to make a shipment service for his current order and to make it to a certain country. Input: The Customer must give information about the destination (Country) area where he/she wants to deliver the order. Output: The Customer will be given an information about the shipment service such as the fee that known for that country. ============================ Operation Name: Adding an Employee to the company. Description: As DMC expanding greatly in the past years, we are making this issue more than usual lately, and it is about recruiting a new employee to the company, further adding his information to the database. Input: For this operation we need to have the new Employee Name, Age, Nationality, and his/her Date of Birth to be able to add him/her to our database. Output: The new Employee will be added to our database, and will be given a Unique ID number to be known as one of DMC employees. ============================ Operation Name: Assign a Unique ID to a Customer. Description: This operation deals with having a new customer and need to be having his/her information in our database to be given an ID number for easily checking the customer status when he/she makes more orders in the future. Input: To make this operation successful, we need to have basic information yet helpful for us such as Name, Age, and Contact number. Output: The Customer has been given a unique ID number. BUSINESS ACTIVITIES This section describes the operations of DMC Company which is as I mentioned before but in more specific it deals with car sales that the company get from other retailers which recently built up a really strong relationship with DMC and are getting the best deals to expand our business. So mainly DMC deals with customers with services, and we do car sale business, also we are very restrict with our system and the invoice we made are very clear for every car, further our employees are doing their best in every deal been made for each car. And more to mention here for our upcoming Database building is that we are going to build a new design system model that contains Cars, Employee, Invoice, Shipment, and Customer. Those Five elements that I mentioned above will be our main focus on this database design, as it is in general what DMC is is all about. For that matter here we are going to explain in details every Element we have for our Design Model, been explained by including its Attributes and a brief description about its main purpose. And every element will be known later on in the database description as Entity. Invoice Entity This entitys main purpose is to keep track of the sales, and for every deal that have been sold by whom as an employee and for whom as a customer, also it will display all the data necessary about the product (Car) AND ITS Unique ID, plus other major information such as total price and the invoice reset number, whats more is this entity acts as the main entity related to all the other entities as it is also related to the (Shipment) entity as it also saves the shipment number in the invoice paper. The Attributes that have been made for this Entity are: Invoice_Number, Customer_ID, Employee_ID, Shipment_Nmber, Total_Price, and Car_ID, and we will be talking about all the attributes for every entity in more details later on. Cars Entity This entity deals with all the cars that the company DMC stores, and contains all its details such as the car brand name, its color and the car ID, and the shipment number for every specific shipment that been made, along with the most important attribute for all the customers which is: the cars price. Employee Entity This entity here will be busy of containing the Employee_ID, Name, Age, Nationality, and Date of Birth, it will be also including two separated types of employees and they are: Part Time, and Full Time. Customer Entity This Entity is busy with giving the full information needed about the customers we are dealing with such as their Customer_ID, Name, Age, Contact_Number, and these information will be helpful in many facts in our company such as in making our invoices and assigning a specific car for a certain customer. Shipment Entity Shipment entity is one of the services that made our company earn its name in such a short time, as this service allow a full shipment service for as much as needed for cars for our customers viewed with its price, and a unique Shipment_Number, also the Country attributes as it tells the destination for each shipment services and the Fee attribute to tells the price for each country shown on the list. BUSINESS RULES In this section we will be listing DMC companys main rules in its business, as for our customers for an example they are able to buy as much cars as they can with no any problems but for our cars in the stock we cannot offer to sell the car for more than one and only one customer, also with our employees as any 1 of our employees can deal with more than just one car, but for the cars they should be dealt with only one employee to make the sell process. And as for these examples here we will be listing all the business rules for our company to make sure to be followed as it is: 1- For every Shipment service that been made, it has to be assigned into an invoice that is related to it and that is a MUST. 2- Every Car in stock can have one invoice specialize for it; same goes for the invoice as we made only one car can fit in each invoice rather than more than just one to make the business more flexible. 3- Every Car can have a shipment service depends on the customers need, and as for this shipment service, it can be done for more than just one car as well, but it should be made for at least one car for this service to be available. 4- For every single customer, he/she can belong to more than just one invoice depends on the orders he/she made and how many cars been bought, and in the other hand for the invoice it can only belong to one and only one customer, means we cannot include two customers buying the same car model in one invoice because they sold the same car model. 5- Every employee can handle more than just one invoice when making the selling process, he/she can serve more than just one invoice, but for the invoices, every invoice should be handled by only one employee. 6- Also we have to make sure that we wont start the buying process for our customers unless we have their personal data in our database system. 7- For our new employees, we cannot let them start working in active business unless the process of having their personal information inside our database is done. INITIAL E.R DESIGN SPECIFICATION TABLE SPECIFICATION Inside DMC database I would like to create few modules and show the way to create them, and the purpose of making them, plus the reason of every column, so they can help me on the objectives Im aiming to achieve which they are: Database Description My database consists of five tables (And two sub-type tables that will be mentioned later on) and they are: 1. Cars 2. Invoice 3. Customer 4. Employee 5. Shipment Table Specification Table Name: Invoice Table Description: To be used as a reference of all the sales of the company. Attribute of the Table: Invoice_Number, Customer_ID, Car_ID, Employee_ID, Shipment_Number, Total_Price. Table Type: Independent. Primary Key: Invoice_Number. ============================ Table Name: Customer Table Description: To be shown the customer basic information, along with his/her unique ID number. Attribute of the Table: Customer_ID, Name, Age, Contact_Number. Table Type: Independent Primary Key: Customer_ID ============================ Table Name: Employee Table Description: To be shown the Employee private data inside the database. Attribute of the Table: Employee_ID, Name, Nationality, Date of Birth. Table Type: Independent (Supertype) Primary Key: Employee_ID ============================ Table Name: Cars Table Description: To be shown the Car basic data, along with the cars price and its shipment number. Attribute of the Table: Brand_Name, Color, Car_ID, Shipment_Number, Price. Table Type: Independent Primary Key: Car_ID ============================ Table Name: Shipment Table Description: To be shown more specific information about the shipment service, such as the countries that are available for the service, plus the fee. Attribute of the Table: Shipment_Number, Country, Fee Table Type: Independent Primary Key: Shipment_Number ============================ Table Name: Full Time Table Description: To be shown more specific information about the Full Time employees, such as the Salary for the Full Time employees section, and the administration section which shows each full time employee and hi/her related administration division, along with the Employee ID. Attribute of the Table: Employee_ID, Salary, and Administration. Table Type: Independent (Subtype) Primary Key: Employee_ID ================================ Table Name: Part Time Table Description: To be shown more specific information about the Part Time employees, such as their Salary as well, and the Part time employees time shifting for their work time, and for sure their employee ID.. Attribute of the Table: Employee_ID, Salary, and Time Shifting. Table Type: Independent (Subtype) Primary Key: Employee_ID ATTRIBUTE SPECEFICATION 1. Invoice Entity Name: Invoice Primary Key: Invoice_Number Name Datatype Length Classification Allow Null Constraints Description Invoice_Number Int Simple No Unique A certain unique numbers to keep track of each invoice Customer_ID Varchar (10) Simple No Unique The ID for a customer Employee_ID INT (10) Simple No Unique The unique ID for an employee Car_ID Varchar (10) Simple No Unique The ID for a car Total_Price Double Simple No Unique Total price of a certain invoice Shipment_Number Int (10) Simple No Unique Unique number made for a certain shipment made 2. Cars Entity Name: Cars Primary Key: Car_ID Name Datatype Length Classification Allow Null Constraints Description Brand_Name VarChar (20) Simple No Unique Model name of the car Color VarChar (10) Simple No Unique Color of the car Car_ID Varchar (10) Simple No Unique The ID for a car Shipment_Number Int (20) Simple No Unique Unique number made for a certain shipment made Price Double Simple No Unique Actual Price of a car 3. Employee Entity Name: Employee Primary Key: Employee_ID Name Datatype Length Classification Allow Null Constraints Description Employee_ID INT (10) Simple No Unique The unique ID for an employee Name VarChar (20) Simple No Unique The first name of employee Nationality Varchar (20) Simple No Unique The employees nationality Date of Birth Date Simple No Unique The employees date of birth 4. Customer Entity Name: Customer Primary Key: Customer_ID Name Datatype Length Classification Allow Null Constraints Description Customer_ID Varchar (10) Simple No Unique The ID for a customer Name VarChar (10) Simple No Unique The first name of a customer Age Int (2) Simple No Unique The customer age Contact_Number Int (10) Simple No Unique Customer Contact number 5. Shipment Entity Name: Shipment Primary Key: Shipment_Number Name Datatype Length Classification Allow Null Constraints Description Shipment_Number Int (20) Simple No Unique Unique number made for a certain shipment made Country VarChar (10) Simple No Unique The country where the shipment destination Fee Int (5) Simple No Unique The price of the shipment 6. Full Time (Sub-Type Entity) Entity Name: Full Time Primary Key: Employee_ID Name Datatype Length Classification Allow Null Constraints Description Employee_ID INT (10) Simple No Unique The unique ID for an employee Salary Currency Simple No Unique The salary of a particular employee Administration VarChar (20) Simple No Unique The certain task that the employee is responsible for 7. Part Time (Sub-Type Entity) Entity Name: Part Time Primary Key: Employee_ID Name Datatype Length Classification Allow Null Constraints Description Employee_ID INT (10) Simple No Unique The unique ID for an employee Salary VarChar (10) Simple No Unique The salary of a particular employee Time Shifting Date/Time Simple No Unique The certain day that the employee have his/her work shifts on CODING CREATING OF TABLES CREATING OF TABLES As for my companys project for our database I used Microsoft Office Access 2007, and I started creating tables on it. [1] Cars Table Script Name Create Cars Table CREATE TABLE Cars ( Car_ID VARCHAR PRIMARY KEY NOT NULL, Brand_Name VARCHAR(20) NOT NULL, Color VARCHAR(10) , Shipment_Number INTEGER(20) NOT NULL, Price Double NOT NULL, ); [2] Invoice table Script Name Create Invoice Table CREATE TABLE Invoice ( Invoice_Number INTEGER PRIMARY KEY NOT NULL, Customer_ID VARCHAR(10) NOT NULL, Car_ID VARCHAR(10) NOT NULL, Shipment_Number INTEGER(10) NOT NULL, Price Double NOT NULL, ); [3] Customer table Script Name Create Customer Table CREATE TABLE Customer ( Customer_ID VARCHAR PRIMARY KEY NOT NULL, Name VARCHAR(10) NOT NULL, Age INTEGER(2) NOT NULL, Contact_Number INTEGER(10) NOT NULL, ); [4] Employee table Script Name Create Employee Table CREATE TABLE Employee ( Employee_ID VARCHAR PRIMARY KEY NOT NULL, Name VARCHAR(20) NOT NULL, Nationality VARCHAR(20) NOT NULL, Date of Birth Date NOT NULL, ); [5] Shipment table Script Name Create Shipment Table CREATE TABLE Shipment ( Shipment_Number INTEGER PRIMARY KEY NOT NULL, Country VARCHAR(10) NOT NULL, Fee INTEGER(10) NOT NULL, ); CONSTRAINTS SPECIFICATION Generalization hierarchy on an Employee. Description: This hierarchy assigns the Employee entity as Supertype, and Full Time, Part Time as Subtypes, and since the both subtypes have many similarities, the Supertype have the attributes in common to the subtypes and they are: Employee_ID, Name, Nationality, Date of Birth. . The subtypes cannot be one in another, means the Full Time employee cannot be a Part Time employee, and therefore this generalization hierarchy is of the type disjoint. Type: Disjoint Super type Entity: Employee Super type Primary Key: Employee_ID Common Attributes: Employee_ID, Name, Nationality, Date Of Birth. Constraints Full Time: This subtype entity shows certain data about the Full time employees in the company and their related information which is needed to our database. As for the attributes for this entity: Employee_ID, Salary, Administration. Part Time: This subtype entity shows the data the other type of employees which is the part time employee type. As for the attributes for this entity: Employe_ID, Salary, Time shifting, INITIAL POPULATING OF TABLES Cars Table Populating Table (Cars) INSERT INTO Cars (Brand_Name, Color, Car_ID, Shipment_Number, Price) VALUES (Mustang, Orange, 17111, 11333, 40000) ; Invoice Table Populating Table (Invoice) INSERT INTO Invoice (Invoice_Number, Customer_ID, Car_ID, Employee_ID, Shipment_Number, Total_Price) VALUES (11, 9844, 17633, 1432, 11771, 25) ; Customer Table Populating Table (Customer) INSERT INTO Customer (Customer_ID, Name, Age, Contact_Number) VALUES (9020, Avinash, 39, 2800131) ; Employee Table Populating Table (Employee) INSERT INTO Employee (Employee_ID, Name, Nationality, Date of Birth) VALUES (1422, Vadimas, Libyan, 2/21/1986) ; Shipment Table Populating Table (Shipment) INSERT INTO Shipment (Shipment_Number, Country, Fee) VALUES (11311, Germany, 130) ; Full Time Table Populating Table (Full Time) INSERT INTO Full Time (Employee_ID, Salary, Administration) VALUES (1433, 1300, Secretary) ; Part Time Table Populating Table (Part Time) INSERT INTO Part Time (Employee_ID, Salary, Time Shifting) VALUES (1441, 2000, 3/23/2009) ; USERS INPUT (INSERTION, DELETION, UPDATE) INSERTION: Add New Car (Cars Table) Query name: Insert (New Car in the cars showcase) INSERT INTO Cars (Brand_Name, Color, Car_ID, Shipment_Number, Price) VALUES ([Type the Cars Brand], [Type the Color of the Car ], [The Car ID], [The Shipment Number related to this Car], [The Price of this Car is); INSERTION 2 Here we are going to try to insert a new data into the Shipment form, as we will be using it through the Shipment form insertion button included in that form. Then here the database will ask you if your up for inserting new data into that form And here the data has been inserted successfully below UPDATE: Update New Customer (Customer Table) Query name Update (New Customer in the Customers Table) UPDATE Customer SET Contact_Number = [Enter Customers phone number] WHERE Customer_ID = [ID]; DELETION: Delete a Shipment Country (Shipment Table) DELETE * FROM Shipment WHERE Country = [Enter the Country that will be eliminated]; PERFORMING QUERIES, SUB-QUERIES QUERY [1] (Performing Alias technique into a Query) Description: To manage all the Employees names into one query QUERY [2] (Performing Function technique into a Query) Description: To display all the cars available at the moment QUERY [3] (Performing Concatenation technique into a Query) Description: To give a brief description about each car in the showcase QUERY [4] (Performing Sub-Query technique into a Query) Description: To Create a query from the employee data where it concern only employees who are British. QUERY [5] (Performing another Sub-Query technique into a Query) Description: To Create a query from the Cars data where it concern only the minimum prices of listed cars plus be grouped by the cars brand name. TESTING Test case : 1 Objectives : To use ALIAS in Employee Table Test Data : SELECT NAME AS FULLNAME FROM Employee; Expected Test Result : To display the corresponding records. Actual Test Result : As shown in the image below. Conclusion : Success. The record was displayed. Test case : 2 Objectives : To use ALIAS in Customer Table Test Data : SELECT Name AS CustomerName FROM Customer; Expected Test Result : To display the corresponding records. Actual Test Result : As shown in the image below. Conclusion : Success. The record was displayed. Test case : 3 Objectives : To use ARITHMETIC in Car Table Test Data :SELECT Car_ID, Brand_Name, (Price*2) AS [Price with Shipment] FROM Cars; Expected Test Result : To display the corresponding records. Actual Test Result : As shown in the image below. Conclusion : Success. The record was displayed. Test case : 4 Objectives : To Create Shipment Table Test Data : CREATE Table Shipment ( Shipment_Number int (5), Country varchar (10), Fee money (10) ) ; Expected Test Result : To display the corresponding records. Actual Test Result : As shown in the image below. Conclusion : Success. The record was displayed. Test case : 5 Objectives : To use COMPARISON in Cars Table Test Data : SELECT Car_ID, Brand_Name FROM Cars WHERE Price6000; Expected Test Result : To display the corresponding records. Actual Test Result : As shown in the image below. Conclusion : Success. The record was displayed. Test case : 6 Objectives : To use COMPARISON in Shipment Table Test Data : SELECT Shipment_Number, Country FROM Shipment WHERE Fee6000; Expected Test Result : To display the corresponding records. Actual Test Result : As shown in the image below. Conclusion : Success. The record was displayed. Test case : 7 Objectives : To Create Cars table Test Data : CREATE Table Cars ( Car_ID int (5), Shipment_Number int (5), Brand_Name varchar (10), Color varchar (10), Price (10) ) ; Expected Test Result : To display the corresponding records. Actual Test Result : As shown in the image below. Conclusion : Success. The record was displayed. Test case : 8 Objectives : To use DELETION on Cars Table Test Data : DELETE From Cars Where Color = Green; Expected Test Result : To display the corresponding records. Actual Test Result : As shown in the image below. Conclusion : Success. The record was displayed. Test case : 9 Objectives : To use UPDATE in Shipment Table Test Data : UPDATE Shipment Set Shipment_Number = 11888 Where (Country = Libya); Expected Test Result : To display the corresponding records. Actual Test Result : As shown in the image below. Conclusion : Success. The record was displayed. Test case : 10 Objectives : To use FUNCTION in Car Table Test Data : SELECT Count(*) AS [Total Number of Cars at Showroom] FROM Cars; Expected Test Result : To display the corresponding records. Actual Test Result : As shown in the image below. Conclusion : Success. The record was displayed. Test case : 11 Objectives : To use UPDATE in Employee Table Test Data : Update Employee Set Age =33 Where (Nationality =Libyan); Expected Test Result : To display the corresponding records. Actual Test Result : As shown in the image below. Conclusion : Success. The record was displayed. Test case : 12 Objectives : To use Concatenation in Employee Table Test Data : SELECT Name Nationality AS [Employees Description] FROM Employee; Expected Test Result : To display the corresponding records. Actual Test Result : As shown in the image below. Conclusion : Success. The record was displayed. Test case : 13 Objectives : To use Concatenation in Cars Table Test Data : SELECT Brand_Name Paint is Color AS [Car Description] FROM Cars; Expected Test Result : To display the corresponding records. Actual Test Result : As shown in the image below. Conclusion : Success. The record was displayed. Test case : 14 Objectives : To use Function in Customer Table Test Data : SELECT Name, Lcase(Nationality) AS Citizenship FROM Employee; Expected Test Result : To display the corresponding records. Actual Test Result : As shown in the image below. Conclusion : Success. The record was displayed. Test case : 15 Objectives : To use Sub-Query in Employee Table Test Data : SELECT Name, Employee_ID FROM Employee WHERE Nationality=(SELECT Nationality FROM Employee WHERE Nationality=British); Expected Test Result : To display the corresponding records. Actual Test Result : As shown in the image below. Conclusion : Success. The record was displayed. Test case : 16 Objectives : To use INSERT in Shipment Table Test Data : INSERT INTO Shipment ( Shipment_Number, Country, Fee ) VALUES ([Type Shipment Number Please], [Type the appropriate Country ], [Type the tax for that Country]); Expected Test Result : To display the corresponding records. Actual Test Result : As shown in the image below. Conclusion : Success. The record was displayed. Test case : 17 Objectives : To use Insert in Customer Table Test Data : INSERT INTO Customer (Customer_ID, Name, Age, Contact_Number) VALUES ([Type New Customer ID], [Type the Customer name ], [Customer age], [The Customer Contact Number]); Expected Test Result : To display the corresponding records. Actual Test Result : As shown in the image below. Conclusion : Success. The record was displayed. Test case : 18 Objectives : o Check if the Main menu Exit button is working Test Data :Click on the Exit Button in the Main menu form in the database Expected Test Result : The User will exit the main menu and the database will be terminated Actual Test Result : As shown in the image below. Conclusion : Success. The record was displayed. Test case : 19 Objectives : To make sure (Select Customer Table) is working properly Test Data :Go to Customer Form, then click on Select Customer table Expected Test Result : To display the records of the customer table. Actual Test Result : As shown in the image below. Conclusion : Success. The record was displayed. Test Log No Results 1 Successful 2 Successful 3 Successful 4 Successful 5 Successful 6 Successful 7 Successful 8 Successful 9 Successful 10 Successful 11 Successful 12 Successful 13 Successful 14 Successful 15 Successful 16 Successful 17 Successful 18 Successful 19 Successful ENTITY RELATIONSHIP MODEL DIAGRAM Final E USER GUIDE USER MANUAL In order to run this database as a user, you first need to have Microsoft Access installed in your system which is included in the Microsoft Office package, either access 2003 or access 2007 should fine, Then we move forward to open the source file, which is shown in your computer inside the CD included with this Project, as when you access the CD you will find Folder then inside that folder you will find a couple of files, from those file you will be choosing (DBMS DMC SALES) File as its a .db file as it shown below , then follow these simple steps to interact with the database which will be shown below: Click on the DBMS DMC SALES file to access the database as it will give you the following window screen As its clear already the database start with the user on the Form section to make it easier to navigate through the database from in the user-methods. Then we see a bunch of forms created by the administrator of the database, we go straight to the Main Menu Form icon shown below and click on it as it will teleport us to the below screen-window This is the Main Menu of the database, through this window the user will be able to access all the forms, and tables of the DMC company that are included in this database, as we can see few forms in the center, along with an Exit button to feel free to terminate the database at anytime. Then here we will try to interact with one of the forms in the Main Menu, as we go click to the Cars Form button, to navigate the user through the Cars personal form as it shown below Then on the Cars Form, we will try to access the Cars table, as we see other few operations that the user is able to perform, whoever this is how the Cars table looks like once the user click on its button Then we go back to the Main Menu as its already still shown while we open other forms, which is why I wasnt in need to include a Back button, as I thought of it as of a more distraction to the user, so its better this way for this database specially. And after that we go and try another Form from the main menu, which is the Employee Form, and as we click on it, it will display another window related to the employee form as it shown below After that we will try one of the other buttons in the employee form, which is the Update button, as it will give the user the authority to update an existing data in the employee form of the database. But before that the Microsoft office Access will ask the user as a warning message that he is about to run an update into this table. After that the user will start putting the updated data that he/she wants to update as it shown below And on the next screen-window we will notice that the new updated data has been implemented into the database as it shown below Then we go back to another form, from the main menu, and we choose to take a look at the Shipment Form The Shipment Form basically is where any information related to the shipment service in the company is been stored there and its type of data is, and now we will go and access that form After that we will give it a try now into the Insertion button of that form as its defined here as Insert Shipment Data, and once the user is about to insert new data he/she will have to fill the following information And once the needed information has been inserted, Microsoft Office Access will notify the user that he is about to append a new row into the shipment table as it shown below Then we will see when we access the Shipment table again that the new data that the user inserted has been inserted inside the actual shipment table along with the other included data as it shown below Now we go through one of the most important forms in this database which is the Customer Form, as we can access through it from the min menu as well. Here we will be displaying to the user the content of the Customer table inside its form as it includes all the necessary data needed by the company for its precious customers After that we will go through the last Form through our database which is the main Core of this database as it connects all the tables together, and that form is the Invoice Form, As I explained above and we noticed that all the forms are included with the most important controlling for the user to take actions which are the inserting, deleting, and updating of the data, and so for this one last form we will be displaying the content of its table as well as I mentioned earlier it is known as the Core of this database Thats all about this simple, and easy to user guide through this database, now once the user got the hang of it and wants to terminate the database he/she can just go to the Exit button in the bottom-right corner of the main menu to close the whole database program. CONCLUSION Critical Appraisal In this course I tried as much as possible to include and to mention in details everything that is related to database in building it as practical, and as an SQL language as well, by adding the proper codes for my specific query settings for my project, but without doubt the lack of time was one of the reasons that I might have talk in brief about it, but aside from that, this project and huge scheme about Database management system save me a wide knowledge about the relations designs on the database, along with the entities, attributes, and how to make a successful relations between each entity to each other, and to give each a valid unique primary key, also to make a different between entity and attributes. I also studied from other sources to know much about the different types of attributes, and how to work with the private and foreign keys. The database in general is more secure than any other system in nowadays, because it is only accessed by authorized people, and Im very pleased with this project as I achieved many of the objectives which some of them are: 1- Adding data to the table (in the DBMS) 2- Viewing data to the table (in the DBMS) 3- Deleting table (in the DBMS) 4- Creating table (in the DBMS) ENHANCEMENTS I have the plan to modify the whole database if some company outside or local intends to implement my application to their system, and I can also go far by studying more and put more efforts for SQL language, by studying other database management system languages such as the famous ORACLE. As I can see from this scheme that been made, along with the other information followed by the basic and final implementation for my companys database, and how to provide a reasonable relationships to all the tables Entities, along with a simple-related rules that fits my business, I realized that with this work I have come up to a point where I did reached almost 95% of the objectives needed to be achieved, and get the goals that DMC was aiming for through this scheme. Further more if we will be considering those steps to be done before any new system or a project to be made for the company, Im sure that DMC will reach more heights, and the companys system will keep on being reliable, flexible, and compatible even if it is gotten bigger in business data, as for new employees, or more customers and of course a lot of brand new cars every season. And more extensive testing should have been carried out on the surface as functional testing and usability, I also would like to mention that from this project course Ive really gained a far better understanding and knowledge on certain aspects of database management system, and the Microsoft Access program itself, for manipulating designing database, and how to deal with the tables known as entities along with their attributes and the primary and foreign keys inside every entity, furthermore which is really helpful to our Entity diagram, and how designing it using the proper signs, icons to make a clear vision of the database before start working on it as an initial E.R, also few more database techniques such as generalization which was really helpful to my project, along with the coding. Also one of the other interesting techniques Ive learned this course, was how to make forms in MS-Access, and how to manipulate my tables, attributes inside the forms, making them display the way I want to, and give them a certain display with certain options to the DBMS user. Weaknesses Due to lack of time I bet Ive missed filling more data into my database, also even though I got to know more query types than the ones Ive mentioned thanks to the SQL course I took before this one yet I couldnt mention all of them, Also another factor is the lack of Microsoft access itself as there were some of the objectives that need to be done as EXPLICIT CURSORS AND HANDLING EXCEPTIONS which was impossible to be done on a Microsoft office access, so me and the other students already informed our lecturer about it as he will be giving a note about it to be concerned, as for the rest already been included either on both the documentation and the database itself, or in one of them. PROPOSAL INTRODUCTION DMC is a Dedicated cars company that is specialized in Car sales business, and it was established Four years ago in 7th May 2005, and its main name stands for Dedicated Motor Cars and its main division is in Tripoli Libya, it is a company with many high workers and skilled employees working on it as they are sharing the same ambition, and always aiming for the best in their business, in both to improve their employees skills and also to provide the best services to their dear customer. DMC is really working hard to achieve a new improvement in their business every year, also to get the most popular and successful cars to get them, and for the best prices to its customers, as they are also filling their case show with a good collection in each month. As for this month they got a very promising collection of new cars that just released this year, and old ones but got well comments from millions of people who tried them, this collection will be for this year as in this time its the companys season time for the business. Current System The current system of my company is going like this, each day we are improving, and as I can see now we are well known as 1 of the top 20 Private companies in Libya, and we are also known in the other continents as well. We are also not restrict with only 1 nationality as we are offering jobs, because our company contains employees from different nationality as we have some of them in the main division and some other are in our different offices around the globe. DMC has a good budget as overall, and it is improving, also the customers are so pleased with our services in general, and our economical prices. That includes that we are always taking care of our employees in terms of payment and to keep them improving by sending them to take courses in different kind of fields. Although we are doing a pretty good job in this business field and improving by a good rate percentage every year, but we are really facing some of the major problems in our business, the main problem is that we are facing a new changes and new challenges in our business, also we have other competitors companies in the countries we are doing this business and selling our cars and making our different services. Problem Background Effects of it So our main problem actually includes semi problems that we should take care of them so we can solve the main problem, which is we really need to move on with our services with the technology we are facing these days in doing those kind of business to make it better, faster, and easier. And 1st of all is our own system in the company, because it is still not well organized as an strong infrastructure and we also need a well studied design model for this infrastructure for our company. Thats where I planned to made a Special database system to our company, which will be including our employees, our daily customers for each season, and our sales of cars on this season on as well covered by the invoice section of the company, and some specific information about our shipment idea and its fee and coverage services. The good thing is that with this new system we will be able to make a clear and direct relational between all the sections mentioned above and make a really strong infrastructure for the company plus to be able to store information and data more sufficiently. In this segment I would like to give you an idea about the goals and aims that we are aiming to achieve and they are: 1- Improve the business even much further, to reach a new level of development. 2- Reduce the paper work as we had a loss of some data from time to time. 3- To always keep up with the other contenders companies so we wont lose our customers. 4- Secure our data in a sufficient way. 5- Provide a system where it is easy to get data for any of our customers. 6- Improvement of production to satisfy the customers needs. 7- Easy access to database and information used by employees. 8- Remove barriers to widen its production by improving sales procedure and reducing costs. Hardware and Software Necessity These are all the hardware requirements needed Minimum Requirements Processor 2 Gigahertz (GHz) Pentium IV-Intel processor or Higher. Memory 512 MB of RAM or Higher. Hard Disk 900 MB of available space required on the system drive, 4 gigabytes (GB) of available space capacity on the installation drive. Drive DVD-ROM or CD-ROM drive and Floppy drive Display Super VGA (1024 x 768) or higher resolution These are all the software requirements needed Minimum Requirements Operating Systems Windows XP Service Pack Final, Windows Vista, or Windows 7 any edition with MS-Office.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Ireland Vital Records - How to Obtain Information

Government registration of births, marriages and deaths in Ireland began January 1, 1864. Registration of marriages for non-Roman Catholics began in 1845. Many of the early years of civil registration of births, marriages and deaths have been microfilmed by the Mormons and are available through Family History Centers worldwide. Check the Family History Library Catalog online for details on what is available. Address:Office of the Registrar-General of Births, Deaths and MarriagesGovernment OfficesConvent Road , RoscommonPhone: (011) (353) 1 6711000Fax: (011) 353(0) 90 6632999Â   Ireland Vital Records: The General Register Office of Ireland has records of birth, marriage, and death occurring in all of Ireland from 1864 to 31 December 1921 and records from the Republic of Ireland (excluding the six north-eastern counties of Derry, Antrim, Down, Armagh, Fermanagh and Tyrone known as Northern Ireland) from 1 January 1922 on. The GRO also has records of non-Catholic marriages in Ireland from 1845. Indices are arranged in alphabetical order by name, and include the registration district (also known as the Superintendent Registrars District), and the volume and page number in which the entry is recorded. Through 1877 indices were arranged alphabetically, by year. From 1878 onwards each year was divided into quarters, January-March, April-June, July-September and October-December. FamilySearch has the Ireland Civil Registration Indexes 1845-1958 available for free searching online. Enclose the correct fee in Euros (check, International Money Order, cash, or Irish Postal Order, drawn on an Irish bank) made payable to The Civil Registration Service (GRO). The GRO also accepts credit card orders (the best method for international orders). Records are available by applying in person at the General Register Office, any local Superintendent Registrars Office, by postal mail, by fax (GRO only), or online. Please call or check the Web site before ordering to verify current fees and other information. Web Site: General Register Office of Ireland Ireland Birth Records: Dates: From 1864 Cost of copy: â‚ ¬20.00 certificate Comments: Be sure to request a full certificate or a photocopy of the original birth record, both of which contain the date and place of birth, given name, sex, fathers name and occupation, mothers name, informant of birth, date of registration and the signature of the Registrar.Application for an Irish Birth Certificate * Birth information prior to 1864 may be available from parish baptismal records which are kept at the National Library, Kildare Street, Dublin, 2. Online:Ireland Births and Baptisms Index, 1620-1881 (selected)Irish Family History Foundation – Baptismal/Birth Records Irish Death Records: Dates: From 1864 Cost of copy: â‚ ¬20.00 certificate (plus postage) Comments: Be sure to request a full certificate or a photocopy of the original death record, both of which contain date and place of death, name of deceased, sex, age (sometimes approximate), occupation, cause of death, informant of death (not necessarily a relative), date of registration and Registrars name. Even today, Irish death records do not usually include a maiden name for married women or date of birth for the deceased.Application for an Irish Death Certificate Online:Ireland Deaths Index, 1864-1870 (selected)Irish Family History Foundation – Burial/Death Records Irish Marriage Records: Dates: From 1845 (Protestant marriages), from 1864 (Roman Catholic marriages) Cost of copy: â‚ ¬20.00 certificate (plus postage) Comments: Marriage records in the GRO are cross-listed under the surname of both the bride and groom. Be sure to request a full certificate or a photocopy of the original marriage record, which contains the date and place of marriage, names of bride and groom, age, marital status (spinster, bachelor, widow, widower), occupation, place of residence at time of marriage, name and occupation of father of bride and groom, witnesses to marriage and clergyman who performed the ceremony. After 1950, additional information provided on marriage records includes the dates of birth for the bride and groom, mothers names, and a future address.Application for an Irish Marriage Certificate * Marriage information prior to 1864 may be available from parish marriage registers which are kept at the National Library, Kildare Street, Dublin, 2. Online:Ireland Marriages Index, 1619-1898 (selected)Irish Family History Foundation – Marriage Records

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Scholarship Letter Sample Free Essays

Sample Scholarship Inquiry Letter This letter provides a sample format for inquiring about private student aid funds. Of course, you must first identify foundations and organizations which offer such assistance well in advance of any application deadlines. You can get help finding the names and addresses of private aid sources by conducting a scholarship search on the Internet or from a reference librarian in your public library or local school. We will write a custom essay sample on Scholarship Letter Sample or any similar topic only for you Order Now Once you have obtained contact information you will need to customize this letter to reflect your own background and needs by replacing the bracketed boldface text below. [Your Street Address] [Your City, State and Zip] [Ms. Susan B. A. Dollar] [Director of Big Money Awards] [Lots of Money Organization] [P. O. Box 9999] [Moneytown, USA 99999-9999] Dear Ms. Dollar: I am writing to inquire about any student financial assistance that the [Lots of Money Organization] may offer to college-bound students. Enter a concise paragraph about your background and goals. Try to show how you meet the requirements of the organization’s financial assistance programs. If this is a letter to find out if the organization offers aid, write a short paragraph about how your background and ambitions coincide with the mission of the organization and might qualify you for assistance that may be offered. I would greatly appreciate information about any student financial assistance available through you r organization, including how I may apply for this assistance. Information about application forms and deadlines for the [20XX-XX] academic year would also be appreciated. If you require any further information, please do not hesitate to contact me by phone at [your area code and phone number] or via e-mail at [your e-mail address]. Thank you for your consideration. I look forward to hearing from you soon. Sincerely, [Your Name] Â © NASFAA 2008 1 How to cite Scholarship Letter Sample, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

An Unsuitable Job For A Woman Two Detectives Essay Example For Students

An Unsuitable Job For A Woman: Two Detectives Essay While reading, An Unsuitable Job for a Woman, by P.D. James and Indemnity Only, by Sara Paretsky, one is given the opportunity to slip in to the life of a female private detective and experience the aspects of what occurs during the process of a murder investigation as seem through the eyes of two very independent women. P.D. Jamess character of Cordelia Gray and Sara Paretskys character of V.I. Warshawski are two private investigators that display great passion for their jobs and will stop at nothing in order to close their cases. But, are inexperienced Cordelia Gary and wisecracking Warshawski prime examples of private investigators or are they two naive women who have entered an occupation where compassion and sympathy are two traits that are better left unused. Both Cordelia and Warshawski display great ability as women to enter a world of hate, lies and murder and take on roles that traditionally only men dared to enter. But, as they sift though evidence left behind by unknown assailants and pry into the lives of dead and living strangers, are these women really living lives of their own or are they becoming to emotionally entangled in a web of self destruction. Putting their lives in harms way in search of justice, an oath that they as private detectives have never took. Both women are clearly excellent detectives; they solved their cases and reaped the self-gratification that comes from hard work and determination. In spite of that, are these two women really doing themselves any justice by restraining from the certain pleasures in life they yearn to experience and enjoy but have sustained from due to the career choice they have chosen, as seem in Cordelias reflection of what her life may have been like if she had chosen to attend an university and Warshawskis reflection in the park of the mother and her children. Both women are still at an age where these reflections can still become reality, yet they have chosen to continue pursuing a career that hampers their ability to achieve these personal goals. Maybe their becoming to emotionally involved in their cases is a result of their search for a way to compensate for the void their career choice has left in their lives. Both Cordelia and Warshawski became a little too preoccupied with their cases. Co rdelia became so involved she was sleeping in the same house in which the murder occurred, not to mention the same bed as the deceased and she even began wearing the clothes of the young man whom she was investigating the murder of. She took trips with his friends and ate dinner with his family. Warshawski on the other hand took the sister of the young man whom she was in search of the murderer of and took her under her wing, even let her spend a few days at a friends, in order to allow her some breathing room from her family. To top it all off she began a sexual relationship with someone she had not even ruled out as a suspect yet. These two women not only stepped way over the line of what would be seen as professional, they totally forgot over it and let their emotions get in the way of making clear judgments. Cordelia knew she was making a choice that went against what a rigid detective would do. She even thought of Bernie, her mentor when the time came to make her decision on wh ether or not to tell the facts of the crime. She thought to herself of what notion Bernie would of taken on the matter, To him the moral dilemma at the heart of the crime would have seemed a willful confusion of straightforward facts (281). But, again maybe this is what separates the female private investigator from the male private investigator. .u7810397785f1dcfee00966b8690ffcbd , .u7810397785f1dcfee00966b8690ffcbd .postImageUrl , .u7810397785f1dcfee00966b8690ffcbd .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u7810397785f1dcfee00966b8690ffcbd , .u7810397785f1dcfee00966b8690ffcbd:hover , .u7810397785f1dcfee00966b8690ffcbd:visited , .u7810397785f1dcfee00966b8690ffcbd:active { border:0!important; } .u7810397785f1dcfee00966b8690ffcbd .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u7810397785f1dcfee00966b8690ffcbd { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u7810397785f1dcfee00966b8690ffcbd:active , .u7810397785f1dcfee00966b8690ffcbd:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u7810397785f1dcfee00966b8690ffcbd .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u7810397785f1dcfee00966b8690ffcbd .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u7810397785f1dcfee00966b8690ffcbd .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u7810397785f1dcfee00966b8690ffcbd .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u7810397785f1dcfee00966b8690ffcbd:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u7810397785f1dcfee00966b8690ffcbd .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u7810397785f1dcfee00966b8690ffcbd .u7810397785f1dcfee00966b8690ffcbd-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u7810397785f1dcfee00966b8690ffcbd:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Not many people are happy, but all the libraries are filled with books on happiness EssayMaybe, perhaps only a thing a female detective would do? Would a law enforcement agency investigator barge in on an a situation such as these and become so close with the loved ones of the deceased, unless of course they had a search warrant or perhaps developed a new approach to gathering evidence. Would they work alone on such dangerous cases? Would they cover up the evidence of a murder because of empathy towards the assailant, such as Cordelia did for Miss Leaming? Would a murder go left untold and a suicide replace the truth, if a police detective had solved the crime? Perhaps the re are some advantages to being a private investigator rather then an investigator working for a police agency. As a private detective there is an opportunity to development relationships with the victims and suspects that are close and personal, in order in gather evidence, that would be seem as in ethical by a department. Also, time allows for the private investigator to work solely on one case at a time, unlike a police detective who may be juggling quite a large caseload. But, as a private detective there arises the question as to what is ethical and what is not. Was Cordelias choice to cover up Sir Ronalds murder ethical? Was Warshawskis choice to enter the apartment without permission and withhold valuable evidence from law enforcement ethical? The real question on hand is not whether private investigators take away from law enforcement or if women should or should not be in the career of investigations. Its whether or not there is a personal duty to uphold the law, whether th e detective is employed privately or publicly and should that investigator put a side his or her emotions in the name of justice.

Sunday, March 22, 2020

Public Speaking and Entertainment Speeches free essay sample

The speaker can entertain people through use of humor and/or drama. He should be gracious, relaxed, and spontaneous. This type of speech doesnt have to be funny. Dramas are entertaining but not funny. Public speakers can tell Jokes and funny stories, share personal experiences, and dramatist an anecdote. These techniques are commonly used in entertainment speeches. For example, you can tell a personal story that reveals a life lesson youve learned. Its recommended to mix humor with more serious morals and experiences. Your speech should be light-hearted and casual.Use simple words and body engage to illustrate your point. Entertainment speeches should be accurate and reflect the truth. Research is crucial to attaining this goal. Find out more about the audience and their presences. Prepare your speech with your listeners in mind. Choose an appropriate topic that your audience will enjoy. Remember, youre not trying to give them a greater understanding of anything. We will write a custom essay sample on Public Speaking and Entertainment Speeches or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Your goal Is to make them relax and forget about their everyday worries. Grab peoples attention from the moment you start talking. Reveal the topic of your speech.Ask rhetorical questions to get the audiences attention. If you want to tell Jokes and funny stones, make sure they are appropriate for your audience. Avoid serious topics and controversial Issues that drag people down. Carefully organize your message and avoid Information overload. They make a long lasting impact on their audience by using tasteful humor, dramatic stories, and interesting examples. Funny stories are a key part of entertainment speeches because they help listeners remember the material. A good speaker should encourage audience participation.For example, you can start your speech by saying: Raise your hand if you have ever had a pet. Just like informative speeches, entertainment speeches have a clear message, but the manner of speaking is typically different. Its essential to deliver your speech in a way that makes the humor effective. Include dialogue, characters, and vivid imagery. Add unexpected twists to your presentation. Make your speech simple. Dont make it hard for your listeners to keep up with you mentally. Build in small surprises to keep the audience interested in your presentation.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Impact of Socio-Cultural Factors on Women’s Mental Health Essays

Impact of Socio-Cultural Factors on Women’s Mental Health Essays Impact of Socio-Cultural Factors on Women’s Mental Health Essay Impact of Socio-Cultural Factors on Women’s Mental Health Essay Impact of Socio-Cultural Factors on Women’s Mental Health Social values are those, which big group/community holds. These qualities can alter over the long draw and as society progresses. On the other manus, cultural values are handed down from past era. In malice of the fact that adult females exist longer, they are most surely non basically populating better or healthier lives ( Douki et al. , 2007 ) . Today, the position and good being of a big figure of adult females around the universe remain unluckily low. Harmonizing to one study of the WHO, adult females s well-being is inseparably interfaced to their position in the public oculus. Bing a girl, sister, married woman, female parent, and more of it a adult female as an single possesses great duties on one’s shoulder. Responsibility comes with function outlook that society expects from a adult female to play, which influences psychological science to its best. In add-on to it, many cultural patterns might lend to women’s mental wellness, particularly in those countries wh ere adult females are stigmatized. As a situational theoretical account stress psychological hurt linked to interpersonal and societal state of affairss ( Karasz, 2005 ) . The intent of taking this subject is that, today in the twenty-first century where the homo is seeking life on other planets, females in our ain Earth missing their basic rights, adult females are still in the dark epoch. In most of civilizations and communities, adult females are victims of force and the authority of male over female which is tempted by their societies and cultural norms ( WHO 2012 ) . The physical effects of cultural impacts are largely related to mental upsets. The content of this composing will offer attending to the persons about the constituents which had become everyday as a portion of cultural and societal criterions and their annihilating effects on a adult female s psychological science. Furthermore, this paper will foreground important issues which cause hapless mental well-being of adu lt females and which becomes a ground behind community deformation and load on the wellness attention system. Cruelty against adult females is unbounded ( beyond the age, sex, race, location ) and accordingly they encounter mental and psychological maltreatment in the continuation of their life rhythm, amid babyhood, childhood until older age. Harmonizing to United Nations survey, in Pakistan the per centum of married adult females who are physically battered is 50 % and 90 % are emotionally and verbally abused ( Nasrullah et al. , 2009 ) The most widely recognized grounds for adult females buffeting integrated involvement along with letdown with the dowery, traveling out of place without stating the spouse, impotence, declining to hold intercourse with him, women’s demands for separation, non caring for the in-laws, and improper duty of expected gender functions etc. Taking into history the impact of each causative factor on adult females psychological science are following: Multiple Roles Expectation and its impact on Psychology: First, adult female has to execute multiple functions in society as a female parent, sister, married woman and other blood dealingss. Indulgence and acquiring overloaded with all these relational responsibilities, she finally gets stressed and down. Harmonizing to the function strain theory, affecting oneself in assorted societal parts could be a cause of anxiousness because of deficiency of clip and energy, and may hold basically unfavourable mental and subjective well-being decisions ( Plaisier et al. , 2008 ) . A survey on emphasis in NWFP Pakistan reported a prevalence of anxiousness and depression about 46 % in adult females compared to 15 % in work forces. ( Niaz, 2004 ) . In add-on to it, anticipating to play specifically assigned functions besides contributes to violence that finally leads to mental wellness jobs. In a manner that males are expected to act like masculine describe by bravery and courage, and females are expected to move like feminine characterized by timidness , weak and submissive ( Ali A ; Gavino, 2008 ) . As a consequence stigmatisation of females took topographic point if she doesn’t tantrum into the social frame of feminism. Harmonizing to the kineticss of force against adult females stated in literature, it seems that constituents like doctrine about patriarchate, society, faith, media, civilization, single qualities come together to lend into force against adult females ( Niaz, 2004 ) Intimate Relations and its impact on Psychology: Second, badgering as a constituent of mental force is a normal phenomenon that happens when the partner is teased for conveying deficient dowery which is non harmonizing to the demands of in-laws. One of the major factors of domestic force against adult females in rural countries of Pakistan is greed for dowery ( Ali et al. , 2013 ) . Harmonizing to a research 100s of adult females die because of range Burnss and the identified motivation behind this is to acquire rid of the adult females and remarry with more doweries from another household ( Niaz, 2004 ) . Third, challenges in confidant relationships which causes physical every bit good as psychological hurt. Many surveies show that sexual force against female by an confidant spouse often, has serious and reliable mental wellness results for adult females ( Kumar et al. , 2013 ) . Fliting mental wellbeing impacts of matrimonial assault incorporate edginess, stun, serious apprehensiveness, misery, suicidal ideation, eating upset and post-traumatic anxiousness issue ( WHO, 2012 ) . A research consequence showed high prevalence of life-time sexual force: 37 % in urban and 50 % in rural countries ( Naved, 2013 ) . The likely effect of sexual assault and its after effects can be seen in the undermentioned instance: â€Å"A 22 twelvemonth old female patient came with around five month history of garrulity, crossness and wakefulness. About one and half old ages back, in her small town, she was sexually assaulted by two individuals while she was returning to her place. After making her place, she faced frequent unfavorable judgment by her household members and at times she was beaten by them excessively. No constabulary instance was filed in this affair, due to dishonor and sing the hereafter jobs in matrimony. Due to this, she started experiencing low, retreating herself from making any work. Subsequently, she was sent to one of her relation for work, where she was working as a full-time family assistant. There once more, she was sexually assaulted and had to confront perennial chiding. Gradually, there was a alteration in her behaviour and her male parent brought her to the infirmary with the aforesaid complaints† ( Kumar et al. , 2013 ) . Womans Status and its impact on Psychology: Furthermore, the cardinal position, that adult females are low-level to work forces and that the award of the household depends upon the workss of adult females in matching household ( Ali A ; Gavino, 2008 ) . To safeguard this award, society confines women’s behavior, curtailing to one topographic point and contact with the opposite gender. In short, high rates of mental wellbeing issues may be because of household relational differences, pecuniary lessening and high rates of unemployment ( Lago, 2011 ) . However, if some manages to work, on the other manner their work expose them to conjugal clangs and torment in the work environment. Harmonizing to a survey conducted in Pakistan 86.5 % of the studied nurses reported harassment experience, most of them were private infirmary nurse ( Malik A ; Farooqi. 2014 ) .Subsequently, work for most females is more wellhead of weariness and anxiousness alternatively of a alteration toward oneself. Large parts of them will make depressi ve spreads finally may give up working and might stop into station traumatic emphasis upset. â€Å"Feminist theory positions societal phenomena as determined by the patriarchal construction of most societies. Harmonizing to this theory adult female maltreatment is one of the results of a construction that allows harlotry and other limitations to maintain adult females in servile positions† ( Ali A ; Gavino, 2008 ) . The survey of hard-pressed adult females in Pakistan, revealed most adult females had arranged matrimonies and besides had a bachelor’s grade with 2 to 3 childs, the bulk worked outside place, learning or running a little concern. Their symptoms were concerns, choking feelings, palpitations, droping bosom, asleep pess, and hearing failing ( Niaz, 2004 ) Cultural Norms and its impact on Psychology: Despite this, over the recent old ages, an expanded rate of Karo-Kari ( honor violent deaths ) in Baluchistan has farther smudged Pakistan as now negative adult females rights record ( Khoso et al. , 2011 ) . Established in patriarchal and societal feeling of female as male belongings, Karo-Kari seemingly happens to revenge for household regard when a lady abuses tribal or societal criterions. Predictably, the pattern marks single, who is neer given a opportunity to protect themselves against the claims which contributes to non merely physical force but besides terrible mental upsets ( Mayell, 2002 ) . Harmonizing to a research, 86 violent deaths as Karo-Kari instances were reported, out of which 53 of the victims were adult females in Larkana, Sindh ( Ali A ; Gavino 2008 ) . Another pattern which might butcher a woman’s societal desire in the name of social norms is the pattern of Watta Satta ( exchange matrimony ) , in which a sibling and sister is hitched to an alternate brace of family. In these exchange relational brotherhoods, if there was no lucifer accessible at that clip, a pregnant lady in the household promises to supply her babe when it is conceived. This might stop into depressive upset for a female parent due to external pressurization. â€Å"Research has demonstrated that kids of down female parents are at higher hazard for school failure and depressive disorders† ( Douki et al, 2013 ) . Those relational brotherhoods include abuse of two ladies whose matrimonial satisfaction relies upon performing artists outside their matrimony. Divorce and its impact on Psychology Womans with unsated and rough relationship in such preservationist society and civilization choose for separation which is non acceptable in Islamic point of position. Such behavior makes exceptionally troublesome for a adult female to stop a ferocious relationship. Womans tend to believe that they are perpetrating incorrect workss by fade outing even an opprobrious matrimony which might do emphasis, depression, low ego regard, anxiousness, aggression, temper A ; personality upset and many more. Harmonizing to Bandura, societal fortunes plays most of import function in finding the frequence and factors related to aggressive behaviour ( Ali A ; Gavino 2008 ) . Largely, the adult females are left out entirely, stigmatized and supercharge from her ain household members. Due to such rough worlds, a adult female continuously becomes a victim of internal and external emphasis. Harmonizing to the nested ecological model, through interaction between one another and their societal environme nt behaviours are shaped. In Pakistan divorce continues to be an apprehensiveness of societal shame that prevents adult females from making out for aid. The per centum of abused adult females who didn’t declared to be abused is 70 % ( Niaz, 2004 ) . Recommendations: In my sentiment, avoiding the factors such as force effects on mental wellness leads non merely to misdiagnose of implicit in upset but besides contributes to personal and social deformation. It can be assumed that there is a demand of partnership between the community and wellness attention supplier for advancing mental wellness, giving consciousness about the cultural beliefs that becomes a ground for adult female mental wellness effect. Following schemes should be initiated on a broad scope with sufficient resources and expertness, both at governmental and non-governmental degree with community engagement. There could be schemes like healing and preventative for a adult female enduring from force. Curative plan may include support to the enduring adult female by giving guidance and do her regain lost self- regard, rehabilitative services, and shelter place. Interdisciplinary attack with resources may be used as a preventative step, these include preparation for mental wellness att ention suppliers, practicians, and societal workers and help them in acknowledging beat-up adult females. To reason, there are a figure of socio-cultural variables which play a important portion in impacting adult females s psychological science, including ferociousness against adult females, dowry related issues, award execution, impotence, the consequence of multiple functions and gender function outlook, and powderizing impacts of separation. All above mentioned factors leads to psychological upsets such as depression, unipolar depression, bipolar upset, postpartum depression, eating upset, personality, temper upset, and other psychological upsets. Gender-related differences might ensue in depressive upset and low self-pride. At present in many states including Pakistan, adult females because of their gender deficiency self-worth, physical, emotional, and sexual security which is the key to good mental wellness, which finally leads to violence against adult females. Although, reform in the mental wellness puting entirely can non decide the jobs, it would necessitate coaction towards a lteration in attitudes, societal response and beliefs among people. Mentions Ali, P. A. , A ; Gavino, M. I. B. ( 2008 ) . Violence against adult females in Pakistan: a model for Analysis.Journal of Pakistan Medical Association ( JPMA ). Ali, T.S. , Arnadottir, G. , A ; Kulane, A. ( 2013 ) . Dowry patterns and their negative effects from a female position in Karachi, Pakistan. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //dx.doi.org/10.4236/health.2013.57A4012 Douki, S. , Zineb, S.B. , Nacef, F. , A ; Halbreich, U. ( 2007 ) . Women s mental wellness in the Muslim universe: Cultural, spiritual, and societal issues.Journal of Affective Disorders,102, 177–189. Karasz, A. ( 2004 ) . Cultural differences in conceptual theoretical accounts of depression.Social Science A ; Medicine,60, 1625–1635. Khoso, I. , Shafiq, K. , Abdi, A.R. , A ; Shaikih, F.M. ( 2011 ) . Problems and Challenges Faced by the Rural Womans: A Case Study of Balochistan.Asian Culture and History,3 ( 1 ) . Retrieved from www.ccsenet.org/ach Kumar, A. , Nizamie, S.H. , A ; Srivastava, N.K. ( 2013 ) . Violence against adult females and mental health.Mental Health A ; Prevention,1, 4-10. Lago, C. ( 2011 ) .The enchiridion of transcultural guidance and psychotherapeutics. McGraw-Hill International. Malik, S. , A ; Farooqi, Y.N. ( 2014 ) . General and Sexual Harassment as Forecasters of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among Female Health Professionals.World Journal of Medical Sciences,10 ( 1 ) , 43-49. doi:10.5829/idosi.wjms.2014.10.1.81128 Mayell, H. ( 2002 ) . Thousands of Women Killed for Family Honor . Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //news.nationalgeographic.com/news/pf/15061734.html Nasrullah, M. , Haqqi, S. , A ; Cummings, K.J. ( 2009 ) . The epidemiological forms of honour violent death of adult females in Pakistan.The European Journal of Public Health, 1-5. doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckp021 Niaz, U. ( 2004 ) . Women’s mental wellness in Pakistan.World Psychiatry,3 ( 1 ) , 60–62. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1414670/ Plaisier, I. , F.Beekman, A.T. , M.Bruijn, J.G. , Graaf, R.D. , Have, M.T. , Smit, J.H. , Dyck, R.V. , Penninx, B.W.J.H. , ( 2008 ) . The consequence of societal functions on mental wellness: A affair of measure or quality?Journal of Affective Disorders,111, 261–270 Understanding and turn toing force against adult females. ( 2012 ) . Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/violence/en/index.html

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Explain the causes of European exploration and analyze the changes Essay

Explain the causes of European exploration and analyze the changes this caused in the Americas - Essay Example Due to this, Europeans wanted to figure out alternative routes in order to decrease their cost of travelling and this led to the creation of a route to Asia which passed through the horn of Africa. Before the period of Exploration, the wealth of Europeans had declined as a result of wars and in order to obtain more wealth, Europeans started exploring other nations in search of commodity such as gold and goods to trade. Exploration conducted by Europeans even led to the development of technology used for sailing, this purpose led to the development of Portuguese caravel which assisted the Europeans to travel to the middle regions of the sea. One of the main aims of the European explorers was to spread the religion of Christianity in different regions such as Asia. The Europeans of that era were highly influenced by the Roman Catholic Church and they were indulged in spreading Christianity under this church. Exploration had a series of negative and positive impacts on the Americans. The most negative impact was the death of huge number of natives as result of diseases that transferred from the Europeans to the Americans and the wars that took place between the two societies and due to enslavement of the Americans. Christopher Columbus was the one who enslaved over 250,000 Arawaks and only a total of 500 of the enslaved ones lived alive by the period of 1550. During the 15th century, horses were imported into Americas and a huge number of these horses escaped into the wild regions where they increased in number due to reproduction and soon horses became a mode of transportation for the Northern American tribes and this travel instrument helped them in trading goods and services with other tribes. The diseases that came along with the Europeans and badly impacted the people of Americas were measles and chicken pox and these diseases proved to be deadly for the natives (Goldfield, 2011,